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While there weren’t a great number of tax measures included in the 2018 Fall Economic Statement brought down by the Minister of Finance on November 21, 2018, the tax changes that were announced represented good news for Canadian businesses.


Most Canadians know that the deadline for making contributions to one’s registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) comes after the end of the calendar year, around the end of February. There are, however, some instances an RRSP contribution must be (or should be) made by December 31st, in order to achieve the desired tax result, as follows.


For individual Canadian taxpayers, the tax year ends at the same time as the calendar year. And what that means for individual Canadians is that any steps taken to reduce their tax payable for 2018 must be completed by December 31, 2018. (For individual taxpayers, the only significant exception to that rule is registered retirement savings plan contributions, which can be made any time up to and including March 1, 2019, and claimed on the return for 2018.)


The holiday season is usually costly, but few Canadians are aware that those costs can include increased income tax liability resulting from holiday gifts and celebrations. It doesn’t seem entirely in the spirit of the season to have to consider possible tax consequences when attending holiday celebrations and receiving gifts; however, our tax system extends its reach into most areas of the lives of Canadians, and the holidays are no exception. Fortunately, the possible negative tax consequences are confined to a minority of fact situations and relationships, usually involving employers and employees, and are entirely avoidable with a little advance planning.


Two quarterly newsletters have been added—one dealing with personal issues, and one dealing with corporate issues.


Getting a post-secondary education – or professional training – isn’t inexpensive. Tuition costs can range from as little as $5,000 per year for undergraduate studies to as much as $40,000 in tuition for a year of professional education. And those costs don’t factor in necessary expenditures on textbooks and other ancillary costs, to say nothing of general living expenses, like rent, transportation and food.


When the Canada Pension Plan was launched in the mid-1960s, both the working lives and the retirements of Canadians looked a lot different than they do in 2018. Fifty years ago, most Canadians were able to work at a single full-time job, often held that job for most or all of their working lives and, in many cases, benefitted from an employer sponsored defined benefit pension plan which guaranteed a certain level of income in retirement.


Most Canadians deal with our tax system only once a year, when preparing the annual tax return. And, while that return – the T1 Individual Income Tax Return – may be only four pages long, the information on those four pages is supported by 13 supplementary federal schedules, dealing with everything from the calculation of the tax-free gain on the sale of a principal residence to the determination of required Canada Pension Plan contributions by self-employed taxpayers.


Anyone who has ever tried to reduce their overall personal or household debt knows that doing so, no matter how disciplined one’s approach, can seem like a one step forward, two steps back proposition. It sometimes seems that, just as measurable progress is achieved in one area (an extra payment is made on the mortgage), unexpected costs in another area (a significant car repair bill) push up the level of debt elsewhere (e.g., credit card debt).


Home renovations are big business right now in Canada, as many homeowners opt to make changes and/or additions to their current residences rather than try to find a new home in the current real estate market. And, while the cost of renovating one’s home is usually considered a personal expense which doesn’t qualify for any tax credit or deduction, starting this year there is an exception to that rule.


By the time this summer reached the halfway mark, most Canadian taxpayers had filed a tax return for 2015, received a Notice of Assessment with respect to that return, and considered that their income tax obligations for this year were complete. For a significant number of those taxpayers, however, the filing of that return will trigger the issuance of a 2016 Tax Instalment Reminder from the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA), and that reminder will show up in their mailboxes sometime during the month of August. On that form, the CRA will suggest to the recipient that he or she should make instalment payments of income tax on September 15 and December 15, 2016, and will identify the amount which should be paid on each date.


As the summer starts to wind down, both students returning this fall to their post-secondary institutions and those just starting post-secondary education must focus on the details of the upcoming school year: finding a place to live, choosing courses, and — perhaps most important — arranging payment of tuition and other education-related bills.


For most of the year, taxpayers live quite happily without any contact with the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA). During and just following tax filing season, however, such contact is routine – tax returns must be filed, Notices of Assessment are received from the CRA and, on occasion, the CRA will contact a taxpayer seeking clarification of income amounts reported or documentation of  deductions or credits claimed on the annual return. Consequently, it wouldn’t necessarily strike taxpayers as unusual to be contacted by the CRA with a message that a tax amount is owed or, more happily, that the taxpayer is owed a refund by the Agency. Consequently, it’s the perfect time for scam artists posing as representatives of the CRA to seize the opportunity to defraud taxpayers.


By the end of June all individual taxpayers have filed their 2015 income tax returns and most will have received a Notice of Assessment outlining the Canada Revenue Agency’s (CRA’s) conclusions with respect to that taxpayer’s income and tax position for the year. In most cases, the Notice of Assessment won’t vary a great deal from the information provided by the taxpayer in his or her return. Where it does, and the change is to the taxpayer’s detriment, taxable income assessed is greater than the amount reported by the taxpayer, or a deduction or credit is denied, then the taxpayer has to decide whether to dispute the CRA’s assessment.


By now, most Canadians are familiar with the use and the benefits of a tax-free savings account (TFSA), which have proven to be a very popular savings vehicle since they were introduced in 2009. What’s proven to be harder to do is keeping track of one’s annual TFSA contribution limit. The annual TFSA contribution limit contribution allowed by law has been something of a moving target, subject to change after change by successive governments. As well, withdrawals made from a TFSA are added to one’s annual contribution limit, but not until the following taxation year – a fact that has escaped many TFSA holders and sometimes even their financial advisers. And finally, the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) used to provide information on a taxpayer’s current year TFSA contribution limit on the annual Notice of Assessment, but that’s no longer the case, meaning that the taxpayer has to make an extra effort to obtain that information.


There has been much discussion in recent years about whether Canadians are adequately prepared for retirement and, more specifically, whether Canadians are saving enough to ensure a retirement free of undue financial stress. While the financial health of current and soon-to-be-retirees (essentially, the baby boomers) is a concern, the focus is more on the question of whether our current system is such that younger Canadians can expect to have some degree of financial security in retirement. The workplace has altered dramatically in the past quarter century and many of the retirement income options which were relied upon by previous generations – especially an employer-sponsored defined benefit pension plan – are all but unknown to private sector workers under the age of 30 or even 40.


The forest fires affecting Northern Alberta and the Canada’s Revenue Agency’s (CRA’s) offer of administrative tax relief to those affected by the fires and the resulting evacuations has highlighted a federal government program of which few taxpayers are aware – the CRA’s Taxpayer Relief Program. In a nutshell, that program offers relief from interest charges, penalties, and collection actions for those who are unable, due to circumstances outside their control, from fulfilling their tax filing and/or payment obligations.


Springtime and early summer is moving season in Canada. The real estate market is traditionally at its strongest in the spring, and spring house sales are followed by real estate closings and moves in the following late spring and early summer months. All of this means that a great number of Canadians will be buying or selling houses this spring and summer and, inevitably, moving. Moving is a stressful and often expensive undertaking, even when the move is a desired one — buying a coveted (and increasingly difficult to obtain) first home, perhaps, or taking a step up the property ladder to a second, larger home. There is not much that can diminish the stress of moving, but the financial hit can be offset somewhat by a tax deduction which may be claimed for many of those moving-related costs.


Millions of Canadians receive Old Age Security (OAS) benefits, meaning that millions of Canadians may be subject to the OAS “recovery tax” or, as it is more commonly referred to, the clawback. Unfortunately, very few Canadians are familiar with that tax or how it works, and even fewer incorporate the possibility of having to pay the tax into their retirement income planning. There are, however, strategies which allow taxpayers to minimize or avoid the OAS clawback in retirement.


Canadian taxpayers don’t need a calendar to know that the registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) contribution deadline is approaching — the glut of television, radio and internet ads which fill the airwaves and screens this time of year are reminder enough. And, while RRSP planning and retirement planning generally are best approached as an ongoing, year-round activity, it is true that an imminent deadline tends to focus the minds of taxpayers on such issues


Planning for 2016 taxes when the year has barely started and the filing deadline for 2015 returns is still months away may seem more than a little premature. Nonetheless, taking some time to review one’s tax situation—and perhaps putting a few strategies in place—at the beginning of the year can help avoid a cash flow crisis or other financial shock when the RRSP contribution deadline looms or it is tax filing (and tax payment) time in the spring of 2017. And, while many tax planning and tax saving strategies can be implemented throughout the tax year, getting an early start on such planning usually leads to the best results.